Forty people were killed, almost 3,000 were injured, and numerous Footage of the devastation from an 8.9. magnitude earthquake and tsunami which struck Japan Friday. Artificial islands, such as the modern Rokkō Island and especially Port Island in Kobe, suffered severe subsidence due to liquefaction. Three bridges on the less heavily used Route 2 were damaged, but the highway was reopened well ahead of Route 3 and served as one of the main intercity road links for a time. The Tohoku earthquake caused a tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a meltdown. The ratio of persons injured to persons missing or dead for the 2011 Japan disaster (0.31: 5,994 to 19,371) was much lower than for the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 in Thailand (1.01; 8,457 to 8,393) and for the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake of 1995 in Japan (6.80; 43,792 to 6,437). , 1995 earthquake centered near Kobe, Awaji Prefecture, Japan. The first 3 hours of tsunami propagation are shown. Mark Leon Goldberg. Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company.  Less than 15 months after the earthquake, in March 1996, manufacturing activity in greater Kobe was at 98% of its projected pre-quake level.. In Japan, the disaster by this earthquake is officially called The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster (阪神・淡路大震災, Hanshin-Awaji Daishinsai), which is often shortened to The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster (阪神大震災, Hanshin Daishinsai). It spread toward the southwest along the Nojima Fault on Awaji and toward the northeast along the Suma and Suwayama faults, which run through the center of Kobe. Wooden supports collapsed inside supposedly solid concrete pilings under the tracks of the Shinkansen high-speed rail line, causing the entire line to shut down. In the scientific literature it is often called the 1995 Southern Hyōgo Prefecture Earthquake (平成7年(1995年)兵庫県南部地震, Heisei 7 nen (1995 nen) Hyōgo-ken Nanbu Jishin), the name chosen by the Japan Meteorological Agency in the week after the main shock. In December 1995, the government declared January 17 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Day", and the week from January 15 to 21 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Week", to be commemorated with lectures, seminars, and other events designed to encourage voluntary disaster preparedness and relief efforts. It wasn't until July 29 that all four lanes were opened to traffic along one section. Damage was widespread and severe. The railways rebounded quickly after the quake, reaching 80% operability in one month. The Mj 7.3 earthquake struck at 05:46 JST on the morning of January 17, 1995. Structures irreparably damaged by the quake included nearly 400,000 buildings, numerous elevated road and rail bridges, and 120 of the 150 quays in the port of Kobe. An aerial view of tsunami and earthquake damage off the coast of Northern Japan as seen from a U.S. Navy helicopter on March 12, 2011. This financial damage was the immediate cause for the collapse of Barings Bank due to the actions of Nick Leeson, who had speculated vast amounts of money on Japanese and Singaporean derivatives. The earthquake struck below the North Pacific Ocean, 130 kilometers (81 miles) east of Sendai, the largest city in the Tohoku region, a northern part of the islandof Honshu.  Observations of deformations in these faults suggest that the area was subjected to east–west compression, which is consistent with previously known crustal movements. A magnitude 7.4 earthquake strikes Iwaki city on the coast of Fukushima on Tuesday. The national government changed its disaster response policies in the wake of the earthquake, and its response to the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake was significantly faster and more effective. Several large earthquakes struck south of the Japanese island of Honshu on Sept. 5 and the two days following. Retailers such as Daiei and 7-Eleven used their existing supply networks to provide necessities in affected areas, while NTT and Motorola provided free telephone service for victims. Two reconnaissance teams traveled with tripod-mounted LIDAR that allowed for the rapid collection of post-earthquake failure geometries of …  Earthquakes of this type occur along active faults. One in five of the buildings in the worst-hit areas were completely destroyed or rendered uninhabitable. , The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake".  Disruptions of water, electricity and gas supplies were common. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Japan remembers more than 6,400 victims of Kobe earthquake after 22 years", "A fault model of the 1995 Kobe earthquake derived from the GPS data on the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and other datasets", Hunt for tsunami orphans hampered, unprecedented, "The Great Hanshin Earthquake: Lessons for Niigata", "Restoration from the earthquake disaster – City planning based on the lessons learned from the disaster", "Earthquake Readiness: From Underground Stores to Satellite Monitoring", Great Hanshin Earthquake and the destruction of the infrastructure, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, The Medical and Public Health Response to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Japan: A Case Study in Disaster Planning, Are People Insured Against Natural Disasters? The Great Hanshin earthquake (阪神・淡路大震災, Hanshin Awaji daishinsai), or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, including the region known as Hanshin. The Ground Self-Defense Forces were given automatic authority to respond to earthquakes over a certain magnitude, which allowed them to deploy to the Niigata region within minutes. There were four foreshocks, beginning with the largest (Mj 3.7) at 18:28 on the previous day. An aerial view of tsunami and earthquake damage off the coast of Northern Japan as seen from a U.S. Navy helicopter on March 12, 2011. 2. Tsunami Research The Kobe Municipal Subway resumed operation the day after the earthquake with limited service between Seishin-Chuo and Itayado stations (along with the Hokushin Kyuko Electric Railway between Tanigami and Shin-Kobe). Amongst the commemorative events held on the anniversary of the earthquake, large "1.17" digits are illuminated in Higashi Yuenchi Park in the early hours of January 17 each year. NIIGATA – Residents across Niigata Prefecture attended events on Thursday to remember the 68 people killed in the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake. Even at lower magnitudes, they can be very destructive because they often occur near populated areas and because their hypocenters are located less than 20 km below the surface. The magnitude 9.1 quake ruptured a 900-mile stretch of fault line where the Indian and Australian tectonic plates meet. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. Approximately 1.2 million volunteers were involved in relief efforts during the first three months following the earthquake.  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